Heart disease happens when the heart’s blood vessels become clogged or damaged. Accumulation of fatty deposits known as plaque may obstruct the blood arteries or cause blood clots. Heart attack, congestive heart failure, and irregular heartbeat are a few of the significant health issues that are serious consequences of heart disease. Treating cardiac disease is crucial since these medical conditions have a mortality risk.
Your doctor will likely advise you to undertake significant lifestyle changes, such as beginning an exercise routine to manage your heart condition. Additionally, they’ll probably give you medicine. Some common medications assist in treating heart disease in various ways.
Medications for the heart and their roles in heart disease
Your pharmaceutical regimen and treatment plan will depend on the effect of heart disease on your cardiovascular system. Because each case of heart disease is unique, each is treated differently. For example, a cardiac condition may lead to increased blood clotting, elevated blood pressure, or perhaps both. So you could need many medications to treat the symptoms of your heart problem.
Beta-blockers are one of the most common medicines to treat heart attack, heart failure, angina, and certain arrhythmias. Additionally, they may be used to lower blood pressure. They lessen the heart rate and the force of the heart’s contractions. The common drugs of beta-blockers include atenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, and propranolol.
Calcium channel blockers:
Calcium channel blockers, sometimes called calcium antagonists or calcium agonists, prevent calcium from entering the cells of the heart and blood vessels. By relaxing blood arteries, this procedure may lessen the heart’s need to pump blood throughout the body. They are often recommended to treat angina, some forms of arrhythmias, and excessive blood pressure. The commonly used drugs from this class include amlodipine, diltiazem, nifedipine, and verapamil.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors:
ACE inhibitors stop angiotensin synthesis. A hormone called angiotensin causes the arteries to tighten and narrow. ACE inhibitors aid in maintaining open blood arteries. They are recommended to patients with heart failure or those who have had a heart attack to assist and reduce blood pressure and help avoid further heart damage. The common drugs of this class include captopril, enalapril, and lisinopril.
Angiotensin receptor blockers:
These drugs of this class stop angiotensin from affecting the heart and blood vessels, assisting in lowering blood pressure. They are used to treat heart failure and excessive blood pressure. The commonly used drugs from this class include candesartan, losartan, and valsartan.
Blood clots may be avoided by using anticoagulants including heparin, warfarin, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and apixaban. They may also deal with blood clots that already exist. The most common brands of these drugs include Coumadin, Xarelto, Pradaxa, and Eliquis.
These drugs inhibit platelets from sticking to one another, which helps prevent blood clots from forming. Anti-platelet medications include:
One of the old drugs used by heart patients is aspirin. In this way, the full cardiovascular advantages of aspirin were discovered in the 1960s. Aspirin’s anti-clotting and anti-platelet properties may aid in keeping the arteries open. A typical daily dose for those with heart disease is 81 mg. Aspirin makes sense for those who already have cardiovascular problems, but not always for those presenting with risk factors.
Due to its potency in preventing platelet clumping, this medication is often used with aspirin and is called a “super-aspirin.” Doctors will assess the advantages and disadvantages of this medicine as they consider the higher risk of bleeding for certain patients. Moreover, the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel is crucial for avoiding clotting if you have a stent. Additionally, individuals with deteriorating angina often utilize clopidogrel.
Diuretics aid the body in eliminating extra salt and water. As a result, the effort the heart must undertake is reduced. Additionally, it lessens fluid retention in the lungs and other parts of the body. It is used to minimize edema and blood pressure. Amiloride, chlorothiazide, Lasix, Lozol, and Aldactone are some of this class’ most well-known drug names.
Nitrates are also called Vasodilators. A vasodilator, such as nitroglycerin tablets, is often prescribed for angina. These drugs lessen the burden on the heart by relaxing the blood arteries, increasing oxygen-rich blood reaching the heart, and increasing blood flow. Common vasodilators include minoxidil and hydralazine.
LDL (the “bad” cholesterol) is reduced with the use of statins. The common drugs prescribed in this class include atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, sometimes known as “bad” cholesterol, is reduced with statins. Additionally, they may reduce triglyceride levels, a form of blood fat that, when increased, raises the chances of atherosclerosis (accumulation of plaque).
Statins reduce inflammation in cholesterol plaques and the development of harmful cholesterol in the liver. Atorvastatin (Lipitor) and rosuvastatin are examples of common statins.
They also decrease inflammation and “bad” LDL cholesterol levels by 20 to 60%. Patients with diabetes, bypass surgery, stents, heart attacks, or strokes need to be taking statins. Statins should be used by certain people with high LDL levels but without cardiovascular problems.
In the market, digitalis is available as Digoxin (Lanoxin). Its function is to boost calcium in heart cells. Because of this increased heart rate, your heart pumps more blood out with each beat. If you have heart failure, your doctor could recommend digitalis.
How digitalis works are by reducing the speed of certain electrical impulses transmitted by your heart. As a result, there are fewer signals overall, lowering the risk of arrhythmias. Your doctor could also recommend digitalis if you suffer from an irregular heartbeat and atrial fibrillation. Digoxin is often administered along with ACE inhibitors and diuretics.